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This unification, long aspired to by all Yemenis, turned to be a tragedy for Aden as the city became marginalised and was left to decline.
Adeni people soon lost their enthusiasm about the unity and became disillusioned about the future. In the anomaly of conflicting developments, people started to long for earlier stability and the focus was redirected at the family as a source of permanence, and hence at women, on whose shoulders the success or failure of the family was thought to rest.
Public construction ceased entirely and lack of maintenance accelerated the image of a dying post-colony. Salaries were raised, but inflation made the living expenses so high that everybody except the well-off people could hardly afford basic necessities anymore.
People became increasingly frustrated. Strikes and anti-government demonstrations became daily news. To add the misery, the Gulf crisis and civil wars in the African horn pushed thousands of returnees and Lady looking sex Dahlgren to Aden and increased the already high unemployment rate and the mass of people with no meaningful thing to do.
The miserable conditions of the refugee camps aggravated the image of Aden as a place with no future. Looting, robbery and kidnappings spread to Aden, earlier basically unknown occurences.
Women moving outside home were suddenly expected to cover their hair and, preferably, be in the presence of a male escort. Any woman who deviated from the new pattern of behaviour was abused in the streets. All in all, the quiet and secure atmosphere of the earlier days was gone. Women in the erstwhile North Yemen became challenged by the public images of their Southern sisters, as did women in the former South Yemen.
However, from a gender perspective, these characterisations are far from accurate. Based on my field data, I will argue that the revolutionary ideology did become an influential discourse on gender and family alongside with the two preceding discourses, namely the customary discourse and the religious one, but it did not replace them, as the above literature presents it.
This is certainly not surprising since the revolution had only 22 years to emerge as a relevant option, while the two others have had hundreds of years of tradition to prove.
Official representation everyday discourse. Activities and practices limitations and resources. Women need to be protected "The Chaste woman does not frequently leave her house"; women should not act in professions which require rational judgement. Veiling and seclusion; calling women with bad names; prestige system; male guardianship; giving birth to sons. There are clearly marked areas where women are supposed to limit their activities; woman should study to become a good Muslim an Mother.
Religious and general education; work in certain fields; martyrdom through motherhood; segregation of sexes.
Education and work outside Lady looking sex Dahlgren career; Family law, marriage counselling 6 vi. The Religious discourse bears elements of modernisation and ideas of individual responsibility. Its gender concept is based on the idea that the woman like the man, is a subject capable of individual agency.
In contrast to that, the Lady looking sex Dahlgren ideology presents the woman partly as a passive heathen with no will of her own, and partly as a source of danger whose activities need to be supervised and controlled. The Revolutionary discourse, in contrast to both of these two, addresses women with the same terms as the man as a citizen of the imagined vii Yemeni nation.
This question has further consequences to the freedom of the woman, both what comes to physical mobility and to the right to make decisions on matters requiring rationalisation viii. The focus of this discourse is the male genealogy and the idea of a shared male honour, which acts as a pattern or map organising all social relations. In itself the honour concept does not say anything directly about women, who are considered to belong under the protection of a particular male member of the family usra ix.
Thus women are presented from the point of view of male agency, not as subjects on their own right. As stated earlier, this religion bears marks of modernisation, and advocates a separate role for women in society. According to the religious discourse, women have a particular role in society which is different from that of men, but which provides the woman an equal opportunity to improve herself and become a good Muslim.
On the side of allocating women new resources, the aims of this policy was to transform the male-female relations inside the family and to promote higher respect of women in everyday discourse, earlier patterned by disparaging remarks and misogyny. The revolutionary discourse, too, is a discourse of modernity, but with a different approach from the religious-modern discourse, Lady looking sex Dahlgren did not allow women equally unrestricted agency with the man xi. To elaborate on the dynamics of the three gender discourses, I will examine an op-ed opposite editorial piece written by a reader called Arwa Mohammed in the official al-Thawra daily, in Winter She expresses her views in a lively debate involving both male and female readers on the pros and cons of marrying an educated woman.
This is what she writes:. It seems many of those men who responded to the debate have condemned educated women without justification. Many Yemeni men seem to think the oriental man is governed by customs, traditions and religion. But what about the oriental woman? By what is she governed? The oriental woman and the Yemeni woman in particular is governed by religion before she is governed by tradition. Marriage should be considered an arrangement in which two people become one and not a system of master and a slave, as I have observed in many families.
Do you think that when a woman leaves her home to shop or to go to work or visit a friend her virtue is at stake? I believe it is impossible for a husband or Lady looking sex Dahlgren to leave his job or school in order to escort his female relatives through the streets. We Yemenis know good manners The chaste woman who goes out takes her chastity wherever she goes. Yemeni men, are you going to leave your jobs to act as an escort service?
If men are unwilling to disrupt their lives to adhere to this custom and our society persists in demanding that it continue, then no woman will be able to go outside of her home for any reason whatsoever. I would like to add that we should not forget that we live in a society which is still conservative.
Marrying an educated female is not the problem many men believe it is. The difference educated women can make to our society is that the learned wife will raise a new generation of literate youth. Many young women in their marital age found the situation intolerable while on the one hand, proceeding education and on the other hand, pondering their chances in the marriage market. At that time, among the young generation in their marital age, the negotiation of gender rights and duties was experiencing a new active Lady looking sex Dahlgren.
Earlier women went to school, university, work, shopping, visiting friends, or cinema and nobody made an issue of it. In working places, it was considered normal that unrelated men and women worked in the same room.
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Consequently, after the unification, among other incidents, the case of a young woman who was kidnapped and abused raised feelings that women need to be protected whenever they leave the home. It was accompanied by a wave of attitudinal change in terms of what is proper behaviour for the woman, and whether and in whose company she should move outside the home. Negative attitudes towards women, bad Lady looking sex Dahlgren and unpleasant behaviour, common before the independence and discouraged in official rhetoric during the PDRY, gained ground again.
In the streets, disparaging remarks were shouted at women who did not cover their hair. Sexual harassment and groping in public places made many women reconsider every time they had to go out. In her letter, Arwa Mohammed is expressing her fear that men no more respect women, as they used to do only some Lady looking sex Dahlgren earlier. Those who harassed women in the streets and tried to grope them were teen-age boys or younger children who used their opportunity in the state of anomaly and confusion. Here she discusses the case of the modern woman, directing her words to the man and making rhetorical use of the religious framework.
Her argument is that because the woman is governed by religion, she is trustworthy. She knows proper comportment and what chaste behaviour means, thus her going to work contains no danger to the man.
In making her point she uses the three major gender discourses, mentioning two of them by name. It is evident that Arwa Mohammed speaks from within the revolutionary discourse with an emphasis on equity and that the two other discourses are viewed from that Lady looking sex Dahlgren. This way her op-ed piece provides an example how the three discourses on gender exist side by side. For many, working outside the home was an economic imperative, but for some who had the chance to acquire higher education, it was a personal challenge to promote a career.
The obstacles women faced in pursuing their careers were both attitudinal and had to do with the problem of how to organise child care and household chores. Let us see how these conflicting demands influenced the life of some working women.
Here are the stories of two women who work in the same factory but in different positions and whose motivations to take up paid employment were different.
The first one is a professional woman with higher education, whom we can call here Ibtisam. Ibtisam took the job with the idea of making a professional career while Aziza needed work in terms of survival. After completing her BA in Aden University she spent three months looking for a job suitable for her qualifications.
She married rather late, when she was already 30, not because she chose to postpone marrying but because circumstances made Lady looking sex Dahlgren that way. At that time her husband-to-be worked in the same department in lower position, but later he moved to work in another place.
Her father had divorced her mother and taken a younger wife and had left the house to his old family. Now she has three daughters after having delivered twins.
She does not mind not having a son, but, she says, maybe in the future.