Get Updates:. Cases Against Doctors. Anabolic steroids are synthetically produced variants of the naturally occurring male hormone testosterone. Both males and females have testosterone produced in their bodies: males in the testes, and females in the ovaries and Types of illegal steroids tissues. The full name for this class of drugs is androgenic promoting masculine characteristics anabolic tissue building steroids the class of drugs. The common street slang names for anabolic steroids include arnolds, gym candy, pumpers, roids, stackers, weight trainers, and juice.
Steroids are purported to increase lean body mass, strength and aggressiveness. Steroids are also believed to reduce recovery time between workouts, which makes it possible to train harder and thereby further improve strength and endurance.
Some people who are not athletes also take steroids to increase their endurance, muscle size and strength, and reduce body fat which they believe improves personal appearance. Doctors may prescribe steroids to patients for legitimate medical purposes such as loss of function of testicles, breast cancer, low red blood cell count, delayed puberty and debilitated states resulting from surgery or sickness.
Veterinarians administer steroids to animals e. They are also used in veterinary practice to treat anemia and counteract tissue breakdown during illness and trauma.
Types of steroids
For purposes of illegal use there are several sources; the most common illegal source is from smuggling steroids into the United States from other countries such as Mexico and European countries. Smuggling from these areas is easier because a prescription is not required for the purchase of steroids.
Less often steroids found in the illicit market are diverted from legitimate sources e. Anabolic steroids dispensed for legitimate medical purposes are administered several ways including intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, by mouth, pellet implantation under the skin and by application to the skin e. These same routes are used for purposes of abusing steroids, with injection and oral administration being the most common.
People abusing steroids may take anywhere from 1 to upwards of a times normal therapeutic doses of anabolic steroids. This often includes taking two or more steroids concurrently, a practice called "stacking. This practice is called "cycling. Doses of anabolic steroids used will depend on the particular objectives of the steroid user. Athletes middle or high school, college, professional, and Olympic usually take steroids for a limited period of time to achieve a particular goal.
Others such as bodybuilders, law enforcement officers, fitness buffs, and body guards usually take steroids for extended periods of time. The length of time that steroids stay in the body varies from a couple of days to more than 12 months. There is increasing concern regarding possible serious health problems that are associated with the abuse of steroids, including both short-term and long-term side effects.
Anabolic steroid abuse
The short-term adverse physical effects of anabolic steroid abuse are fairly well known. Short-term side effects may include sexual and reproductive disorders, fluid retention, and severe acne. The short-term side effects in men are reversible with discontinuation of steroid use. Masculinizing effects seen in women, such as deepening of the voice, body and facial hair growth, enlarged clitoris, and baldness are not reversible.
The long-term adverse physical effects of anabolic steroid abuse in men and in women, other than masculinizing effects, have not been studied, and as such, are not known. However, it is speculated that possible long-term effects may include adverse cardiovascular effects such as heart damage and stroke.
Under this legislation, anabolic steroids are defined as any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids Types of illegal steroids promotes muscle growth. The possession or sale of anabolic steroids without a valid prescription is illegal. If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.
Androgens and anabolic steroids
While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of anabolic steroids. Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, National Football League NFLand National Hockey League have banned the use of steroids by athletes, both because of their potential dangerous side effects and because they give the user an unfair advantage.
The IOC and professional sports leagues use urine testing to detect steroid use both in and out of competition. A variety of non-steroid drugs are commonly found within the illicit anabolic steroid market. These substances are primarily used for one or more of the following reasons: 1 to serve as an alternative to anabolic steroids; 2 to alleviate short-term adverse effects associated with anabolic steroid use; or 3 to mask anabolic steroid use.
Examples of drugs serving as alternatives to anabolic steroids include clenbuterol, human growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate GHB. Examples of drugs used to treat the short-term adverse effects of Types of illegal steroids steroid abuse are erythropoietin, human chorionic gonadotropin HCGand tamoxifen.
Anabolic steroid misuse
Also, diuretics and uricosuric agents may be used to mask steroid use. Over the last few years, a of metabolic precursors to either testosterone or nandrolone have been marketed as dietary supplements Types of illegal steroids the U. These dietary supplements can be purchased in health food stores without a prescription. Some of these substances include androstenedione, androstenediol, norandrostenedione, norandrostenediol, and dehydroepiandtrosterone DHEAwhich can be converted into testosterone or a similar compound in the body.
Whether they promote muscle growth is not known. An undetermined percentage of steroid abusers may become addicted to the drug, as evidenced by their continuing to take steroids in spite of physical problems, negative effects on social relations, or nervousness and irritability. Steroid users can experience withdrawal symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, restlessness, and depression.
Untreated, some depressive symptoms associated with anabolic steroid withdrawal have been known to persist for a year or more after the abuser stops taking the drugs. The most important aspect to curtailing abuse is education concerning dangerous and harmful side effects, and symptoms of abuse. Athletes and others must understand that they can excel in sports and have a great body without steroids. They should focus on getting proper diet, rest, and good overall mental and physical health.
These things are all factors in how the body is shaped and conditioned. Millions of people have excelled in sports and look great without steroids. For additional information on steroids please see our website at: Types of illegal steroids.
The Department of Justice does not endorse the organizations or views represented by this site and takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over, the accuracy, accessibility, copyright or trademark compliance or legality of the material contained on Types of illegal steroids site. Why do people abuse steroids? Where do you get steroids? How are steroids taken? Possible psychological disturbances include the following: Mood swings including manic-like symptoms leading to violence Impaired judgment stemming from feelings of invincibility Depression Nervousness Extreme irritability Delusions Hostility and aggression Laws and penalties for anabolic steroid abuse The Anabolic Steroids Control Act of placed anabolic steroids into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act CSA as of February 27, Steroid alternatives A variety of non-steroid drugs are commonly found within the illicit anabolic steroid market.
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Are anabolic steroids addictive? How can we curtail their use?
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Atrophy wasting away of tissues or organs of the testicles Loss of sexual drive Diminished or decreased sperm production Breast and prostate enlargement Decreased hormone levels Sterility. Menstrual irregularities Infertility Masculinizing effects such as facial hair, diminished breast size, permanently deepened voice, and enlargement of the clitoris.